The science of measurement and analysis of biological data is known as biometrics. The biological data mainly refers to certain unique characteristics of the human body. These characteristics include fingerprints, eye retinas and irises, DNA, facial patterns, voice patterns, hand measurements etc. They serve as excellent parameters for biometrics due to the fact that they are generally not the same for two different individuals and thereby help in the process of identification, verification, authentication and access control.
Biometrics has found application in every walk of life today. In everyday life it is mostly used as a measure of access control, known as biometric access control, which is used as part of biometric security to restrict access to specific regions as well as to safeguard valuables.
An access control system can be set up based upon any of the bodily characteristics as described above. But over the years fingerprints have emerged as the preferred parameter for biometric access control. Fingerprints are mostly preferred over other parameters because of the fact that fingerprints are extremely unique. By scientific definition, fingerprints are the impressions left by the ridges present in our fingertips and palms. These ridges are of different patterns and the patterns vary not only from person to person but also from finger to finger i.e. the fingerprints from two different fingers of the same individual are also different. This highly unique nature of fingerprints has led to the immense popularity of fingerprint access control.
Needless to say, the advantages of biometric access control systems over their manual counterparts are many. Firstly, any possibility of manual error is eliminated. Moreover, scanning processes usually take less than a minute and this saves valuable time for both authorities and the entrants. Finally, use of biometric access control reduces paper or plastic usage significantly and thus contributes to the cause of conservation.
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